Passage 01 (part one)

Part One 

Question 1- 8 

Read the following passage and omplete the summary below. choose you answers from the box at the bottom and write them in the boxes 1-8 .

EARLY FIRE-LIGHTING METHODS

Primitive societies saw fire as a ... ... gift.    

They tried to burning logs or charcoal  that they could create fire themselves. It is suspected that the first man-made flames were produced by 
The very first fire-lighting methods involved the creation of by, for example, rapidly  a wooden stick in a round hole. The use of  or persistent chipping was also widespread in Europe and among other peoples such as the Chinese and . European practice of this method continued until the 1850s  the discovery of phosphorus some years earlier.

rotating random Mexicans
realising preserve despite
heavenly lacking sunlight
friction chance percussion
make without unaware
surprised Eskimos heating
  smoke until


متن زیر را با دقت مطالعه کنید و به سوالات فوق پاسخ دهید. 

A spark, a flint: How fire leapt to life

The control of fire was the first and perhaps greatest of humanity’s steps towards a life-enhancing technology.

To early man, fire was a delivered in the form of , forest fire or . Unable to make flame for themselves, the earliest peoples probably stored fire by keeping alight or by carrying in pots.


How and where man learnt how to produce flame is unknown. It was probably a , accidentally made during operations with wood or stone. Studies of suggest that the earliest method of making fire was through .

European would a wooden drill in a round hole and it between their This process by around the drill and .


used lenses or to the sun’s rays and burning glasses were also used by Mexican Aztecs and the Chinese.

of firelighting Paleolithic times, when some tool-makers discovered that  produced . The technique became more after the discovery of iron, about 5000 years ago In Arctic North America, the Eskimos produced a slow-burning spark by quartz against, a that contains sulphur.

The Chinese their fires by striking with bamboo. In Europe, the combination of steel, flint and  remained the main method of firelighting until the mid 19th century.
Fire-lighting was by the discovery of phosphorus, isolated in 1669 by a German trying to silver into gold.

the element’s , several 17th century used it to fire-lighting devices, but the results were dangerously . With phosphorus costing the eqimalent of several hundred pounds per ounce, the first matches were expensive.

نکته: با کلیک بر موارد زیر به جایگاه پاسخ منتقل می گردید. 

پاسخ سوال 1 

پاسخ سوال 2

پاسخ سوال 3

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پاسخ سوال 8