Lesson four

 

1- Do identical twins always look alike?

2- Do you wish you had a twin sibling? if yes why?

3- In what way do twins look alike? 

4- Do you know how to tell apart identical twins?

 

 

Identical Twins

 

A new study shows that while can look alike, it is not a perfect . They are not of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a single egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The looked for in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA process. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in to disease.

 

The study shows that identical twins do not share totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or trait.

 

 

New 

recent

اخیر

latest

جدیدترین

Show

reveal

برملا کردن - فاش کردن

indicate

نشان دادن

Identical

indistinguishable

غیرقابل تمییز

Perfectly

thoroughly

کاملا - عمیقا

Similarity

resemblance 

شباهت - قرابت

Clone

genetic copy

نمونه یکسان ژنتیکی

Analyze

evaluate

ارزیابی کردن

scrutinize 

موشکافی کردن

Baby

infant

نوزاد

toddler

کودک نو پا

Compare 

assess

ارزیابی کردن - سنجیدن

Look for 

rummage around for

زیر و رو کردن

seek (sought)

جستجو کردن

Stage

phase

فاز - مرحله

Mutation

metamorphosis

دگردیسی - تغییر شکل

Occur

take place

رخ دادن - اتفاق افتادن

Divide

break up

تفکیک کردن/شدن

Cause

lead to

 منجر شدن به

result in 

منتج شدن به

Difference

discrepancy

اختلاف- نا همخوانی

Process

procedure 

روال

Create

generate

ایجاد کردن

Height

tallness

بلندا

Intelligence

aptitude

گیرایی

brainpower

ذهنیت- قوه تفکر

Susceptibility

vulnerability

آسیب پذیری

 

 

A study that while twins can look alike, it is not a perfect . They are not of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists mutations in the early of development. A is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can when a cell . This change a slight in the DNA replication . A single, tiny change can differences in , , eye colour and even in to disease.

 

 

Totally 

entirely

به کل / در کل/ بطور کامل

 

Pair

twosome

دو نفری - دو تایی

 

Substantial

significant

چشمگیر

 

Important

weighty 

با ارزش 

 

crucial

بحرانی - مهم

Shed light on 

illuminate

روشن کردن

 

clarify

واضح نشان دادن

Versus 

as opposed to 

در مقابل با

 

contrasted with 

در قیاس با

 

Debate

discussion

مباحثه

 

Behaviour

 

conduct
رفتار

 

comportment

رویه - رفتار

 

performance

عملکرد

 

Environment 

milieu

محیط - شرایط

 

Upbringing

nurture

تربیت

 

education

آموزش

 

Factor

component

مولفه

 

Reason

cause 

دلیل

 

motive

انگیزه

 

Characteristics 

traits

ویژگی

 

features

مشخصه 

 

Source

origin

منشا

 

Disease 

disorder

اختلال

 

 

 

The study shows that identical twins do not share identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin , one twin carried a "" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is as it the "nature nurture" . This is whether human is determined by the , socialization and , or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental , could be the why one twin develops different behavioural or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the of a given or trait.