Lesson one

 

 

 

 

 

Table of content

1- Listening script 

2- Synonyms (1)

3- Synonyms (2)

4- Words to explain

5- Comprehension Questions

6- Role play

7- Academic writing

 

Listening script 

 

Many people in England are angry that drivers park their cars on the pavements. Cars that are on the pavement block people from walking safely down the street. They have to walk into the road to get around the cars. The charity for the blind, Guide Dogs, said blocking the pavement is "inconsiderate and dangerous". It said it's a lot more difficult for blind people to walk around the town if cars are in their way. A spokesman for the charity told the BBC: "It can be frightening for anyone who is forced to step into a road because the pavement is blocked by a van, car or other badly parked vehicle. Imagine you have to step into a road where you can't see oncoming traffic."

 

A survey on parking in Britain found that 70 per cent of people want a ban on parking on pavements. A town south of London has already started a system to get drivers to park on the road or in a proper car park. Any motorist who parks on the pavement gets a $115 fine. However, many people say the fines do not work. Local people say car owners ignore the fine and park where they want. People pushing their children in baby cars and people in wheelchairs are afraid to walk on busy roads where there is heavy traffic. One woman said there would soon be a very serious accident because of a car parked on the pavement. She wants her town to be like London, which has strict rules against pavement parking.

 

 

Synonyms

Many

A large number of

شمار بسیاری از

 

A not insignificant number of

 تعداد قابل ملاحظه ای از ( در نوشتار بیشتر کاربرد دارد)

 

people

individuals

افراد

 

angry

furious

بسیار عصبی

 

infuriated

برآشفته

 

driver

Chauffeur

راننده ( کسی که شغلش رانند گی است)

 

motorist

راننده ( معمولا در رایتینگ وبه شکل جمع استفاده می گردد)

 

car owner

مالک خودرو

 

Car

Automobile

خودرو

 

vehicle

وسیله نقلیه

 

Pavement (Br.)

sidewalk 

پیاده رو ( این لغت بیشتر در آمریکا استفاده می گردد)

 

pathway

گذرگاه

 

Block

Impede 

مانع شدن ( بویژه پیشرفت در چیزی)

 

Prevent

جلوگیری کردن

 

Obstruct

بند آوردن (چیزی)

 

walk 

Stroll

پرسه زنی کردن (آهسته پیاده رفتن)

 

Saunter

پیاده رفتن ( آهسته و با حس اعتماد به نفس)

 

Street 

Avenue

خیابان ( معمولا پهن و طولانی که در دو طرف ان درخت باشد)

 

Have to 

Be obliged to 

مجبور بودن

 

Be required to 

ملزم بودن

 

Walk into 

Step into

(به داخل ) گام برداشتن

 

Get around

circumvent

دور زدن (قانون یا حقیقت به شکل هوشمندانه و فریبکارانه)

 

bypass

میان بر رفتن- دور زدن (قانون و ..)

 

evade

فرار کردن از 

 

Charity 

Aid organization

سازمان کمک رسانی

 

The blind

The vision impaired

روشندلان( نیک واژه ای که توصیه می گردد بجای کلمه کور استفاده شود)

The unsighted

نابینایان

 

say

Utter

گفتن

 

Articulate

شمرده سخن گفتن

 

Verbalize

به زبان آوردن

 

Inconsiderate 

Thoughtless

بی فکر

 

Discourteous

بی نزاکت

 

Dangerous 

 

Hazardous 

خطرناک (بویژه برای سلامت و امنیت افراد)

 

Perilous 

خطرآفرین (بسیار رسمی)

 

Accident-prone 

مستعد حادثه - حادثه خیز

 

Difficult

Excruciating

طاقت فرسا

 

 

Problematic

مشکل ساز

 

Spokesman

Representative

نماینده

 

Tell

Give an account to 

شرح دادن به 

 

Report to 

گزارش کردن به

 

Frightening 

Scary

ترسناک

 

Fear-provoking

ترس آور

 

Badly

 

Improperly

به طور نامناسب

Poorly

به شکل بد- ضعیف

Imagine

Assume 

فرض کردن

 

تمرین : از روی متن بخوانید و کلمات فوق را جایگزین کنید.

in England are that park their on the . Cars that are on the pavement people from safely down the . They the road to the cars. The for , Guide Dogs, the pavement is "and ". It said it's a lot more for blind people to walk around the town if cars are in their way. A for the charity the BBC: "It can be for anyone who is forced to step into a road the pavement is blocked by a van, car or other parked vehicle. you have to step into a road where you can't see oncoming traffic."

 

 

Synonyms

 

Survey

Study

مطالعه

 

Investigation

بررسی

 

Find

Indicate

نشان دادن (برای نشان دادن نتایج بررسی یا تحقیق)

 

70 percent

Almost three-quarters

تقریبا سه چهارم

 

Roughly two-thirds

تقریبا دو سوم

 

Want

Appeal for

درخواست فوری کردن

 

Demand

تقاضا کردن

 

Ban

Prohibition

ممنوعیت ( رسمی و قانونی)

 

Interdiction

ممنوعیت (قضایی)

 

Start

Launch

راه اندازی کردن (ّویژه یک پروژه مهم و بزرگ)

 

Commence

(بسیار رسمی) شروع کردن

 

Proper

Appropriate

درخور - شایسته

 

Suitable

مناسب

 

Fine

Ticket

جریمه (صرفا برای تخلف رانندگی)

 

However

Nevertheless

با این حال

 

Nonetheless

اگر چه

 

Local

Native

بومی

 

Ignore

Take no notice of

هیچ توجهی نکردن به

 

Children

Offspring

اولاد ( فعل جمع می گیرد- در معنی توله حیوانات نیز بکار می رود)

 

people in the wheelchairs

The physically impaired

ناتوانان جسمی ( نیک واژه ای برای توصیف معلولین)

 

The handicapped

معلولین

 

Afraid 

Frightened 

وحشت زده

 

Scared 

ترسیده

 

Heavy traffic 

Traffic congestion 

ترافیک سنگین (خودرو ها بسیار کند حرکت می کنند)

 

Traffic jam 

راه بندان ( خودروها برای مدتی متوقف می شوند)

 

Soon 

Before long

طولی نمیکشد که 

 

Sooner or later

دیر یا زود

 

Serious 

Harsh 

شدید (با صدای زیاد)

 

Dreadful 

وحشتناک 

 

Accident 

Collision 

تصادم( یا تصادف دو یا چند وسیله که خلاف جهت هم حرکت می کنند)

 

Crash

سانحه

 

Want 

Expect 

انتظار داشتن 

 

Like

Similar to 

همانند

 

Reminiscent of 

یادآور - شبیه

 

Strict 

Stringent

سخت گیرانه

 

Rigid

محکم و شدید

 

Against 

Opposed to 

در اعتراض به 

 

Critical of 

در راستای انتقاد از

 

تمرین : از روی متن بخوانید و کلمات فوق را جایگزین کنید.

A on parking in Britain that of people a on parking on pavements. A town south of London has already a system to get drivers to park on the road or in a car park. Any motorist who parks on the pavement gets a $115 . , many people say the fines do not work. people say car owners the fine and park where they want. People pushing their in baby cars and are to walk on busy roads where there is . One woman said there would be a very because of a car parked on the pavement. She her town to be London, which has rules pavement parking.

 

Define the following terms in your own word.

کلمات و اصطلاحات زیر را به بیان خود توصیف کنید.

Words to explain

 

angry / pavement / street / charity / dangerous / blind people / frightening / traffic / survey / system / motorist / local people / wheelchairs / serious accident / strict rules

 

 

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

 

1.

Where do drivers park that makes people angry?

2.

What is the name of the charity mentioned in the article?

3.

Who did the charity say had difficulty walking around town?

4.

What news agency did the charity's spokesman talk to?

5.

What kind of traffic did the spokesman ask us to imagine?

6.

What proportion of British people want a ban on pavement parking?

7.

Where is the British town that has already started a fines system?

8.

How much do people get fined in this town for illegal parking?

9.

What did a woman say would happen soon?

10.

Which place did a woman say had strict rules on parking?

 

 

Role Play

 

Role  A – Speeding

You think speeding is the worst thing drivers do. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are not so bad about their bad habits. Also, tell the others which is the least annoying of these (and why): idling, illegal parking or queue-jumping.

Role  B – Idling

You think idling is the worst thing drivers do. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are not so bad about their bad habits. Also, tell the others which is the least annoying of these (and why): speeding, illegal parking or queue-jumping.

Role  C – Queue-jumping

You think queue-jumping is the worst thing drivers do. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are not so bad about their bad habits. Also, tell the others which is the least annoying of these (and why): idling, speeding or illegal parking.

Role  D – Illegal parking

You think illegal parking is the worst thing drivers do. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are not so bad about their bad habits. Also, tell the others which is the least annoying of these (and why): idling, queue-jumping or speeding.

 

 

Academic writing

 

 

Write about parking for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner's paper.

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