Passage 01 (part two)

Part Two


The for a  really began after 1781 when a group of French chemists the Phosphoric Candle or Ethereal Match, a containing a of paper phosphorus. When the tube was broken, air , causing the phosphorus to . An even more device, popular in America, was the Instantaneous Light Box — a bottle filled with sulphuric acid into which  

chemicals were dipped.

The first matches those used today were made in 1827 by John Walker, an English pharmacist who borrowed the formula from a military rocket-maker called Congreve. Costing a box, Congreves were splints sulphur and tipped with potassium chlorate. To light them, the user them quickly through glass paper.
Walker never his invention, and three years later it was copied by a Samuel Jones, who his product as Lucifers. About the same time, a French chemistry student called Charles Sauria produced the first “strike-anywhere” match by white phosphorus for the potassium chlorate in the Walker formula. However, since white phosphorus is a deadly , from 1845 match-makers its fumes (مقاله مرتبط را مطالعه کنید), a disease that eats away . It wasn’t until 1906 that the substance was eventually .
That was 62 years after a Swedish chemist called Pasch had discovered red or phosphorus, a development by Pasch’s compatriot J E Lundstrom in 1885. Lundstrom’s safety matches were safe because the red phosphorus was non-toxic; it was painted on to the instead of the , which contained potassium chlorate with a high of 182 degrees centigrade.
America Europe in match technology and safety standards. It wasn’t until 1900 that the Diamond Match Company bought a French for safety matches — but the formula did not work properly in the different climatic conditions in America and it was another 11 years before scientists finally the French patent for the US.
The Americans, however, can claim several “firsts” in match technology and marketing. In 1892 the Diamond Match Company book matches. The didn’t until after 1896, when a had the novel idea of advertising its product in match books. Today book matches are the most widely used type in the US, with 90 percent free by hotels, restaurants and others.
Other American innovations include an antiafterglow solution to prevent the match from after it has been ; and the match, which lights after eight hours in water.


Questions 9-15

Look at the following notes that have been made about the matches described in Reading Passage 1 part 2. Decide which type of match (A-H) corresponds with each description and write your answers in boxes 9 15 .
NB: There are more matches than descriptions so you will not use them all. You may use any match more than once.

9:  made using a less poisonous type of phosphorus 
10:  identical to a previous type of match 
11:  caused a deadly illness 
12:  first to look like modern matches 
13:  first matches used for advertising 
14:  relied on an airtight glass container

15: made with the help of an army design 


Types of Matches
A :  the Ethereal Match
B :  the Instantaneous Lightbox
C : Congreves
D : Lucifers
E : the first strike-anywhere match
F : Lundstrom’s safety match
G : book matches
H : waterproof matches